During a century, the ILO adopted international labor conventions and recommendations specifically linked to the indigenous issues. In this presentation are examined the main challenges facing by Convention no. 169 to obtain more ratifications despite the unfavorable context resulting from the persistent conflict between the social partners in the ILO regarding indigenous issues. Spain has ratified Convention No. 169. The impunity enjoyed by violations of Convention No. 169 verified by the ILO supervisory bodies should challenge our collective responsibility and receive greater attention in the academic world.